20 Dec

Picture Encylopedia

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Mencius held that human nature is essentially good, while Xunzi argued that it is essentially evil, to which Dong Zhongshu argued that it is both, that human nature comprised two opposing elements, one good and the other evil. mencius In many ways Mencius (c. 376–c. 292 BCE) followed the example of Confucius. When Moore described himself as “analyzing,” he conceived of himself as picking out and naming the essential constituents of complex objects.

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19 Dec

First Encyclopedia of History

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It does seem remarkable that you can do something just by saying what you are doing. The sign that one has knowledge is one’s ability to give an account (logos) or explanation (Phaedo 76b), and one who can give an adequate account is a dialectician (Republic 534b). In A Critical Examination of the Belief in a Life after Death (Springfield, IL, 1961), Ducasse states that the conclusion about survival seemingly warranted at present is that “the balance of the evidence so far obtained is on the side of the reality of survival,” but that the evidence is not conclusive.

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19 Dec

Superhuman Feats (Funfax Facts & Records)

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This view was shared by the logical positivists, a group of philosophers working primarily in Austria and Germany between the World Wars whose ideas shaped much of philosophy of science in the twentieth century. Goethe distinguished allegory, a mechanical combination of universal and particular, and symbol, as a concrete unity (see “Über die Gegenstände der bildenden Kunst,” 1797); and Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel followed with a new interest in myth and metaphor in poetry.

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19 Dec

The Macmillan Compact Encyclopedia

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At an early age he entered the Dominican order and became an inmate of the Dominican convent in Naples. ADDITIONAL SOURCES Aydede, M. “Language of Thought: The Connectionist Contribution.” Minds and Machines 7 (1997): 57–101. Harris (1967) geometry Until 1800, mathematics was divided into two great branches: geometry and arithmetic. The work on the paradoxes in the first half of the twentieth century is, perhaps, best viewed as addressing the normative problem.

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19 Dec

The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia (Kingfisher

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Choosing another family will give a different notion of simultaneity: return event return event simultaneity slice midway point midway point sending event master clock sending event Each family of co-moving clocks determines its own notion of simultaneity, and these various notions render different judgments concerning which pairs of events happen at the same time. Last, but not least, the repression etiology is inductively ill-founded, as will be recalled, and will now be seen further.

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19 Dec

Oxford Children's Pocket Book of Knowledge

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As a story about reality it is distinct from poetry and art in general; as a prereflexive story about a miraculous reality, myth is distinct from science and metaphysics. Owen’s year-long Oxford lectures on pre-Socratic philosophy, and his courses and seminars on Plato and Aristotle throughout his career, were famously exhilarating, challenging, and fast-paced explorations of central texts and topics in the study of ancient philosophy.

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19 Dec

Encyclopedia of Artists: 6-volume set

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Pseudo object sentences are peculiar to philosophy; they look like object sentences but if rightly understood turn out to be syntactical sentences. A modern edition of the De Methodis and other logical works would be welcome and would furnish us with one of the most sophisticated expositions of school logic and thinking concerning scientific method to be given during the Renaissance. Original in Bakunin are his insight into contemporary events (he prophesied with uncanny exactitude the way in which a Marxist state would operate) and his power to create a synthesis of borrowed ideas around which the early anarchist movement could crystallize.

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18 Dec

The Usborne First Encyclopedia of Space

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Crescas may on the whole be regarded as an outstanding representative of the medieval “new physics.” Ascendancy of soul over intellect. An allied doctrine of Mill’s is that the proper names of individuals, by contrast with common nouns, have no connotation, only denotation. The soul is affected by the body; therefore, the soul, too, must be corporeal. The other three philosophers mentioned were not concerned about the issue either.

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18 Dec

An Introduction to General Knowledge

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One can easily see that j⁄ÿj and ÿÿjrj are not valid, and hence not derivable: consider the real line R and put j = R–{0}, then [[ÿj]] = Ø and [[ÿÿj]] = R. Work in the “strong program” in sociology of science during the 1970s and 1980s— notably by Barnes and Bloor, Latour and Woolgar, Shapin and Schaffer, Latour and Woolgar, and Collins and Trevor Pinch—was frequently guided by such social construc- tivism. (Recent work in the sociology of science is usually more philosophically sophisticated: See, for example, Shapin [1994].) Most contemporary social epistemolo- gists in the Anglo-American philosophical tradition are motivated by their disagreement with the social construc- tivist tradition, and they argue for the less radical posi- tions just described. the distribution of cognitive labor The distribution of cognitive labor is a common theme in social epistemology and is a link between social episte- mology and evolutionary epistemology.

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18 Dec

Weird Creatures Encyclopedia

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The difficulty is just this— how are they to be known at all? And the interpretation is suggested by the fact that Quine assumes that the failure of the conceptual reduction of science to observations, or of the doctrinal derivation of science from observations, does not count decisively against a positive epistemic status for science. Reflection subject to bracketing of existence yields formulations of these criteria. Of all that has been done in analytical philosophy of religion, it is probably the discussion of religious language in general, and Wittgensteinian themes in particular, that have most interested professional theologians, perhaps because these themes have seemed more relevant than more metaphysical discussions to the work of interpretation and reinterpretation of traditions in which theologians are so much engaged.

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