July 16, 2017

Download 1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed by Eric H. Cline PDF

By Eric H. Cline

In 1177 B.C., marauding teams identified in simple terms because the "Sea Peoples" invaded Egypt. The pharaoh's military and army controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did lots of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few many years. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economic system and cultures of the overdue moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, abruptly ceased to exist, besides writing structures, know-how, and huge structure. however the Sea Peoples by myself couldn't have triggered such frequent breakdown. How did it happen?

In this significant new account of the explanations of this "First darkish Ages," Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of the way the tip used to be led to by way of a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and insurrection to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of overseas alternate routes. Bringing to existence the colourful multicultural international of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the overdue Bronze Age and exhibits that it used to be their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a depressing age that lasted centuries.

A compelling mix of narrative and the most recent scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new gentle at the advanced ties that gave upward push to, and eventually destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the overdue Bronze Age--and that set the degree for the emergence of classical Greece.

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Extra resources for 1177 B.C. : the year civilization collapsed

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We are told in the Hittite account that Tudhaliya personally led the army and defeated the Assuwan confederacy. 57 Included among these were the Assuwan king and his son Kukkuli, along with a few other members of the Assuwan royalty and their families. Eventually, Tudhaliya appointed Kukkuli as king of Assuwa and reestablished Assuwa as a vassal state to the Hittite kingdom. However, Kukkuli then promptly rebelled, only to be defeated again by the Hittites. Kukkuli was put to death, and the coalition of Assuwa was destroyed and vanished from the face of the earth.

The Egyptians, meanwhile, established the Eighteenth Dynasty, begun by Kamose’s brother Ahmose, which initiated what we now call the New Kingdom period in Egypt. Avaris and the rest of Egypt were rebuilt during this period, and ­Avaris itself was renamed. By the time of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III some sixty years later, ca. 1500 BC, it was once again a flourishing city, this time known as Peru-­nefer, with palaces decorated with Minoan-­ style frescoes depicting bull-­leaping and other scenes more clearly at home on Crete in the Aegean than in Egypt proper.

Because of the prevailing winds, a sailing vessel—­whether today or thirty-­four hundred years ago—­can travel with relative ease from the southern shores of Crete to Marsa Matruh on the northern coast of Egypt and thence to the Nile delta. The return journey by sail is not easy, given the winds and currents, but is possible at certain times of the year. It was also possible to go in a counterclockwise motion from Egypt to Canaan and Cyprus, thence to Anatolia and Rhodes, and from there to Crete, the Cycladic islands, and the Greek mainland, then back to Crete and south to Egypt.

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