July 15, 2017

Download A Closer Look at the Animal Kingdom (Introduction to Biology by Sherman Hollar PDF

By Sherman Hollar

Age variety: eight - 12 Years

Table of Contents

Introduction 6

Chapter 1 the diversity of Animal existence 12

Chapter 2 type and behaviour 33

Chapter three Animals with out Backbones 50

Chapter four Animals with Backbones 61

Conclusion 75

Glossary 77

For additional information 80

Bibliography 83

Index 84

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Read or Download A Closer Look at the Animal Kingdom (Introduction to Biology - Britannica Digital Learning) (1st Edition) PDF

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A Closer Look at the Animal Kingdom (Introduction to Biology - Britannica Digital Learning) (1st Edition)

Age variety: eight - 12 Years

Table of Contents

Introduction 6

Chapter 1 the range of Animal existence 12

Chapter 2 type and behaviour 33

Chapter three Animals with no Backbones 50

Chapter four Animals with Backbones 61

Conclusion 75

Glossary 77

For additional info 80

Bibliography 83

Index eighty four

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Aspects of Zoogeography

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Additional resources for A Closer Look at the Animal Kingdom (Introduction to Biology - Britannica Digital Learning) (1st Edition)

Sample text

14. Efferent nerve impulses recorded from nerve I X (upper beam) and the phallic branch of X (lower beam) of male Periplaneta. Diagram at the right shows the arrangement of the electrodes. 1, nerve I X ; 2, branch of nerve X . (a) the abdominal connectives still join the ganglion to the rest of the CNS, (b) 4 minutes after transection of the nerve cord. A large spike appears in the phallic nerve, (c) 10 minutes later. One fiber in nerve I X is now firing more rapidly, while another fiber (larger spike) has now become active.

Spikes in one unit are accompanied by a simultaneous short depolarization in the second unit (arrow) . ) across the postsynaptic membrane. Transmitter substances known to play a role in insect nervous and neuromuscular systems have been reviewed by Colhoun (1963), Boistel, (1968), and Usherwood (1969) and are described in Chapter 2 of this volume. From a functional point of view, the subsynaptic membrane can either be excitatory or inhibitory, depending on the kind of permeability change of which this membrane is capable.

ENDOGENOUS ACTIVITY OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM One of the classical discoveries made by ethologists was that behavioral events can occur without being triggered by sensory input. At the level of the nervous system we must, therefore, demand an ability of neurons to organized output even in the absence of sensory input due to endogenous activity. , specialized membrane regions which change the excitability in a way that outputs is generated rhythmically and nonrhythmically. Within a multineuronal system such as a ganglion, endogenous activity is usually caused by circuits containing one or more spontaneously active neurons connected with follower cells, the latter being driven by the former.

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