By Ran Xinquan
Concise and readable, Water Injection For Low Permeability Reservoirs offers operators with the right kind workflow platforms and engineering thoughts for designing, making plans and enforcing water injection platforms that would enhance restoration components. whilst utilized in low permeability or ultra-low permeability reservoirs, water injection is among the low cost tools for making sure greatest creation premiums. This booklet offers either theoretical research and sensible circumstances for designing and comparing water injection platforms and knowing key construction variables concerned about making unique predictions for oil and water generating charges, water injection premiums, and restoration efficiency.
This ebook in actual fact explains the features of ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear stream theories. those themes are then utilized to layout and implementation. program instances of 4 oilfields are incorporated to aid strengthen innovations whereas illustrating the correct workflow for making sure waterflooding functionality research and optimization. The ebook can be utilized as a reference for box technical body of workers, or as technical help for the administration personnel.
- Discusses features of low and ultra-low permeability reservoirs and linear stream theories
- Provides exact examinations of facets reminiscent of tension sensitivity, fracturing timing, and nonlinear circulate theory
- Describes layout and implementation of complicated waterflooding systems
- Includes actual case reviews from 4 oilfields
Read Online or Download Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice PDF
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Extra resources for Advanced Water Injection for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Theory and Practice
83 m/day, twice as high as in other facies. 4%. Breakthroughs in the Mixed Facies of the Distributary Channel and River-Mouth Bar Along with the forward aggradation and traction of the delta, the distributary channel aggrades above the river-mouth bar, forming a straight, thin, and narrow sandbody. In such facies, the injected water may first tongue forward along the distributary channel, but obviously at a lower speed. 16%. 8%, thus showing a better development efficiency. Breakthroughs in the Facies of the River-Mouth Bar Not only are sandbodies consisting of river-mouth bars usually widely distributed, stable, and thick, they also have good physical properties and allow balanced waterflooding.
At this lead-in stage, the method of “flooding but not producing” can effectively raise the reservoir pressure. When the pressure in the reservoir reaches a threshold, a reasonable injector-producer spacing can make the working gradient at any point higher than the threshold gradient, thus building an efficient displacing pressure system. The Triassic reservoirs of the Yanchang Group in Changqing have a high threshold gradient. 678 MPa/m (Table 1-8). Under such a high-pressure gradient, it is hard to build up an efficient displacing pressure system with an injectorproducer distance of 300 m in the conventional method, but advanced injection can improve the efficiency of both injection and production.
What is worse is that even if the reservoir pressure is raised later, the production and productivity index will be difficult to restore. , the fluid-solid coupling effect. The obvious elastoplasticity of the ultralow-permeability reservoirs leads to high-pressure sensitivity of the formations. In other words, the reservoir porosity and permeability will decline rapidly when the pore pressure drops but will be difficult to restore when the pore pressure rises again. For example, the permeability can decline by 70%B80% but can be restored by less than 20%B30%.
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