By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)
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Age variety: eight - 12 Years
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 the range of Animal lifestyles 12
Chapter 2 category and behaviour 33
Chapter three Animals with no Backbones 50
Chapter four Animals with Backbones 61
For additional information 80
Index eighty four
From the authors of The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs comes an creation to the learn of dinosaurs for non-specialists designed to excite readers approximately technology by utilizing dinosaurs to demonstrate and speak about geology, traditional historical past and evolution. whereas concentrating on dinosaurs it additionally makes use of them to exhibit different facets of the normal sciences, together with basic suggestions in evolutionary biology, body structure, lifestyles historical past, and systematics.
This ebook addresses the elemental problems with predator-prey interactions, with an emphasis on predation between arthropods, that have been greater studied, and for which the database is extra huge than for the massive and infrequent vertebrate predators. The ebook may still entice ecologists drawn to the extensive factor of predation results on groups.
Zoogeography goals to provide an explanation for the constitution, functionality and historical past of the geo graphical levels of animals. The absence or presence of a species in a given position has ecological in addition to old reasons. it's consequently a mistake to consider that reconstructing the phylogenetic connections of a taxon will on its own supply a distinct photo of ways its diversity originated.
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Additional resources for Animal Learning and Cognition
173). T h e observation (see Figure 3) that conditioning proceeds most readily w h e n C S precedes U S has led to the suggestion (see Dickinson, 1980; Hall, 1990) that contigu ity is important in association formation, not for its o w n sake, but because it serves as an important indicator of a possible causal relation between C S and U S . 2) that the simultaneous training p r o cedure can be effective in producing conditioning, seriously undermines any attempt to subsume the contiguity principle under one of causaHty.
Wagner, A. R. (1978). Expectancies and the p r i m i n g of S T M . In S. H. Hülse, Η . Fowler, & W. K. ), Cognitive processes in animal behavior (pp. 177-209). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Wagner, A. , & B r a n d o n , S. E. (1989). Evolution of a structured connectionist model of Pavlovian conditioning ( A E S O P ) . In S. B. Klein & R. R. ), Contemporary learning theories: Pavlovian conditioning and the status of traditional learning theory (pp. 1 4 9 189). Hillsdale, NJ: E r l b a u m . Wagner, A.
T h e issue essentially concerns selectivity in association formation— w h y should it be that the US-induced illness becomes associated with a flavor consumed hours earlier rather than with the other events (such as those involved in administering the US) that occur much closer in time to the US? T h e results presented in Figure 7 make this point most forcefully. T h e y come from an experiment by Garcia and Koelling (1966; see also Domjan, 1982, for confirmation and extension of the results) in which rats were allowed to drink a saccharin-flavored solution while a light and a noise were being presented.
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