July 15, 2017

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By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)

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173). T h e observation (see Figure 3) that conditioning proceeds most readily w h e n C S precedes U S has led to the suggestion (see Dickinson, 1980; Hall, 1990) that contigu­ ity is important in association formation, not for its o w n sake, but because it serves as an important indicator of a possible causal relation between C S and U S . 2) that the simultaneous training p r o ­ cedure can be effective in producing conditioning, seriously undermines any attempt to subsume the contiguity principle under one of causaHty.

Wagner, A. R. (1978). Expectancies and the p r i m i n g of S T M . In S. H. Hülse, Η . Fowler, & W. K. ), Cognitive processes in animal behavior (pp. 177-209). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Wagner, A. , & B r a n d o n , S. E. (1989). Evolution of a structured connectionist model of Pavlovian conditioning ( A E S O P ) . In S. B. Klein & R. R. ), Contemporary learning theories: Pavlovian conditioning and the status of traditional learning theory (pp. 1 4 9 189). Hillsdale, NJ: E r l b a u m . Wagner, A.

T h e issue essentially concerns selectivity in association formation— w h y should it be that the US-induced illness becomes associated with a flavor consumed hours earlier rather than with the other events (such as those involved in administering the US) that occur much closer in time to the US? T h e results presented in Figure 7 make this point most forcefully. T h e y come from an experiment by Garcia and Koelling (1966; see also Domjan, 1982, for confirmation and extension of the results) in which rats were allowed to drink a saccharin-flavored solution while a light and a noise were being presented.

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