By John Haugeland
The concept that human pondering and desktop computing are "radically a similar" offers the valuable subject for this marvelously lucid and witty booklet on what man made intelligence is all approximately. even supposing offered totally in nontechnical
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Additional info for Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea
For instance, it makes no difference to a chess game, as such, if the chess set is stolen property or if the building is on fire or if the fate of nations hangs on the outcome-the same moves are legal in the same positions, period. 3 A crucial consequence of formal self-containedness is the ir relevance of meaning. By concentrating so far on games, we have neatly postponed any questions about formal tokens having meanings. But it doesn't take a crystal ball to see that those ques tions are coming (in the next chapter, to be exact).
Needless to say, his definitions and proofs were not quite as precise and convincing as Galileo's (or we might live in a better world today); but his overall approach transformed the field-and, in recognition of that, he is often called "the father of modern political science. " Closer to our present topic, Hobbes also eagerly embraced the idea that reality itself is fundamentally "mathematical"; ultimately nothing but tiny moving particles. iJXl in perceivers. At this point, M 25 The Saga of the Modern Mind however, Hobbes went his predecessor one better; for he argued, as Galileo had not, that if all reality is just particles in motion, then that must include the mind and its contents as well.
All these relations are proportions among lengths; yet, in terms of them, the "algebraic" operations make perfect sense. The other side of the coin is that geometric proportions can themselves be re-expressed as algebraic equations, which in turn means (given the above quotation) that any geometric problem can be " trans lated" into algebraic notation and solved by algebraic methods. As if unifying algebra and geometry weren't enough, Descartes also realized that physics was in the same boat. If physical laws could be represented geometrically and geometrical relationships could be expressed algebraically, then physics too could be for mulated in algebraic terms.
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