By J.C. Catford
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Extra info for A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language and Language Learning)
They are only the ﬁrst stage of a complete research process . Furthermore, decentralised agents can exhibit other phenomena such as hyperactivity  and diversity  and their designers must address the real-world costs of messaging . Experiments with MAS implementations of a genetic algorithm have yielded unexpected results that were partly due to the cost of messaging . Equally unexpected results may be uncovered with asynchronous and parallel implementations of other nature-inspired algorithms.
This positive reinforcement builds efﬁcient trails to food sources in a decentralised fashion. The Ant Colony System algorithm adapts this process to a graph structure. Figure 1 gives the pseudocode for the algorithm. Initially, every edge in the problem is given the same pheromone level τ0 . A number of ants m are randomly assigned to their starting cities such that no more than one ant occupies any city. The following main loop then proceeds for a maximum of tmax iterations where t is the count of the current iteration.
Directory Facilitators as Place Agents The FIPA Agent Management Speciﬁcation  provides for so-called Directory Facilitator (DF) agents. These offer a ‘yellow pages’ service by allowing other agents to advertise their particular service(s) with the DF. Other agents can then query a DF about its advertised services and subscribe for notiﬁcation about the appearance of new services. We can use a collection of DF agents to build a decentralised pheromone infrastructure of Place agents. Each Place (DF) agent offers its own service description as a Place agent.
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