By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This useful instruction manual brings jointly quite a lot of bibliographic details on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and diverse specialists inside Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for each day use via subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anyplace they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes some of the origins of strain anomalies, and information the equipment to be had for his or her prediction, detection and review. it is going to even be worthy to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference handbook.
checklist of central Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain options
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain assessment
five. precis and total Conclusions - aid Chart
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Additional resources for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
A strong cation exchange capacity, or water adsorption capacity, gives this type of clay its "swelling" behaviour on contact with water. The general formula for smectites is written : ( S L X AINlO (Al(2-X)R:+) (OH12 ECX n H2 0 with R2+ = Mg, Fe, Mn, Cr etc EC = exchangeable cations Further substitution of Si4+ cations by A13+ increases the electrical imbalance and in particular allows potassium or calcium ions to be fixed in an interlayer position. The clay loses its capacity to adsorb water and may gradually change to another type of mineral, illite, which belongs to the mica family.
The importance of the thermal effect in the creation of abnormal pressure is a matter 1 W ) while others see for great controversy. 1975a ;GRETENER,1977 ;SHARP,1W). CLAY DIAGENESIS Clay transformation and dewatering (with concomitant increase in pore water volume) in the course of diagenesis are often considered contributory factors in the generation of abnormal pressure. 37 Numerous studies have highlighted the importance of the mineralogical changes which clays undergo during burial. MINERALOGY In order to understand these processes more readily, it seems useful at this point to restate some of the pertinent aspects of clay mineralogy.
24). The depths at which the three stages of the clay dewatering process take place are essentially dependent on the value of the geothermal gradient. Burst and Magara put the temperature at which stage II water release occurs between 90°C and 100°C. 32 Recent burial Pore Water lnterlayer Water Swelling Clay Solids Non - swelling Clay Solids Non - clay Solids -- ---M Stage I Stage II Stage Ill Fig. 24. - Clay evolution during dehydration (Burst, 1969, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists).
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