July 15, 2017

Download Animal Minds by Donald R. Griffin PDF

By Donald R. Griffin

"Animal Minds tackles a query that's either interesting and critical. the overpowering physique of facts that Donald Griffin has assembled places past moderate doubt the case for spotting that many non-human animals . . . are able to even more refined considering than many scientists were ready to believe."--Peter Singer, writer of Animal Liberation.

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To prepare the birds for this new type of foraging they were first given uncovered mealworms, then mealworms buried in sawdust in the same containers but not covered with masking tape, and, finally, covered containers. They learned surprisingly quickly that they could sometimes find food by pecking through and tearing off the tape. Some of the barkies consisted of short pieces of thick string covered with tape, but the birds never learned to discriminate between masking tape with bumps formed by mealworms or bits of string.

For some time the crows continued to tum over Finding FooR 39 these shells, but gradually paid less and less attention to them. When they were only occasionally turning over mussel shells, Croze placed bait under some. When a crow found one that was thus baited, it began turning over many more. Under natural conditions it is common for something to be a sign of food only some of the time. Animals learn that it pays to inspea such objeas even though they yield food only occasionally, and, when they do yield food, to search for similar objeas.

This habit is well established on Wolf Island, but on other islands where the same species has been thoroughly studied numerous boobies also nest without any sign of its occurrence. On Wolf Island G. difficilis also "push and kick seabird eggs against rocks, widen cracks that fonn in the shell, and then consume the contents" (Grant 1986,393). While Galapagos finches are not the only birds with diversified and ingenious feeding habits, they demonstrate rather clearly how much versatility is required to make a living under difficult conditions.

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