By P. Müller
Zoogeography goals to give an explanation for the constitution, functionality and background of the geo graphical levels of animals. The absence or presence of a species in a given position has ecological in addition to ancient reasons. it really is hence a mistake to feel that reconstructing the phylogenetic connections of a taxon will on its own provide a distinct photograph of ways its diversity originated. A only ecological interpretation of the diversity should be both deceptive if it didn't have in mind the population-genetic constitution underlying the geographical diversity. Phylogenetic systematics, inhabitants genetics, autecology and synecology have all their very own equipment, none of which are substituted for an additional, with no which a variety can't be studied or interpreted. the current publication covers simply sure features of the vast box of zoogeo graphy. those are within the shape within which they have been crystallised during innumerable discussions with my lecturers, my colleagues at domestic and out of the country and my fellow staff, postgraduates and scholars at Saarbriicken, in addition to within the zoogeographical a part of could simple lectures on biogeography for the 12 months 1973-1974. the manager emphasis is laid at the genetic and ecological macro constitution of the biosphere as an area for diversity buildings and variety dynamics, on city ecosystems, that have hitherto been grossly ignored, and at the latest background of levels (the dispersal centre concept). The marine and fresh-water biocycles, nonetheless, were dealt merely briefly.
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 the diversity of Animal existence 12
Chapter 2 category and behaviour 33
Chapter three Animals with out Backbones 50
Chapter four Animals with Backbones 61
For additional information 80
Index eighty four
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Zoogeography goals to provide an explanation for the constitution, functionality and background of the geo graphical levels of animals. The absence or presence of a species in a given position has ecological in addition to old motives. it really is consequently a mistake to think that reconstructing the phylogenetic connections of a taxon will on its own provide a distinct photograph of the way its diversity originated.
Extra resources for Aspects of Zoogeography
The migrations of European butterflies and moths are mostly separated from each other by several generations (WARNECKE 1950, KOCH 1964, EITSCHBERGER & STEINIGER 1973). Such migrations are carried out by the painted lady (Vanessa cardui), the red admiral (Vanessa atalanta), the silver Y (Autographa gamma), 30 w Fig. 20. Distribution from Calidris alpina (after VIELLIARD 1972) with migartion routes ( ~ ) and Overwinterings area in Littoral. the pale clouded yellow butterfly (Colias hyale), the death's head hawk-moth (Acherontia atropos) and the convolvulus hawk-moth (Agrius convolvuli).
KONITZKY 1961). Species of the Eurasiatic tundra, such as the reindeer, of the taiga forest, such as the three-toed woodpecker, and of the deciduous forest, such as the red deer, are represented in America by closely related species or subspecies - a phenomenon known as vicariance. As ILLIES showed (1971), the faunistic resemblance of the northern continents is much greater than that of the southern continents. Despite these resemblances there are a number of endemics to the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions which indicate that the faunas of the northern continents are more distinct from each other than the floras are.
25 than 1000 m. Well established examples of bipolar disjunctions are the species ranges of the priapulid Priapulus caudatus, of the gastropods Retusa truncatula, Puncturella noachina and Limacina helicina, of the cephalopods Rossia glaucopis and Ommatostrephes sagittatus, of the tunicates Didemnum albidum and BotrylIus schlosseri and of the shark Lamna cornubica. Genera with bipolar distributions are for example the squid of the genus Bathypolypus and the feather star Promachocrinus. ) has previously been taken as sharing a bipolar generic range.
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